What legal remedies are available to IP holders whose rights have been infringed?
An IP owner may ﬁle a criminal, civil or administrative action for trade mark, copyright or patent infringement, unfair competition and/or other violations of the IP Code. The administrative action must be ﬁled with the Bureau of Legal Affairs of the IPO (IPO-BLA) provided the amount of damages claimed is above PHP 200 000. A civil action may also be ﬁled with the Regional Trial Court. A criminal action may be initiated by ﬁling a complaint with the enforcement agencies or directly with the Ofﬁce of the Prosecutor of the place where the infringement was committed.